In the era of globalization, concern for both responsible forest product trade and conservation of forest and forest resources are evolving together. The forest product trade, particularly the timber trade, depends on the factors such as change in forest area both qualitative and quantitative; harvesting regime; storage & disposal mechanism including transit pass rules; trade policies; technological advancement in wood processing and wood product manufacturing etc.
Teak (Tectona grandis) comes in reserve category of species in India and for felling, a reserved tree, prior permission of the concerned state forest department, in writing, is mandatory. About 43% of the world’s teak plantations are in India and has traditionally been a net exporter of teak. However, lately India has become a net importer of teak and around 90 per cent of the teak demand is now met through imports. Trade trend shows India will be the largest importer of teak in a few years. The trend, which was noticed in the mid-1980s, has been rising rapidly since the early 2000s. In 2003-04, India imported 429,580 cum of teak, worth Rs 6,586 million. In 2009-10, it reached 653,149 cum, worth Rs 14,805 million. The import is rising at 4-5% in the past nine years. Teak exports have come down from 1,911 cu m in 2003-04 to 710 cu m in 2009-10 (KFRI, 2008).
Based on the versatile utility of Bamboo, it is considered as poor man’s timber. Rachel Kaplan (2012) described Bamboo as one material that seems to stand at the heart of the recent revolution in green products. With a view to harness the potential of bamboo crop, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation (DAC) is implementing a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme called Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) in which National Bamboo Mission (NBM) is being implemented as a sub scheme (http://www.fdcm.nic.in/National-Bamboo-Mission.aspx).
India Bamboo Database by the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) shows that there are 10 million ha of bamboo area, accounting for about 12.8% of the total forest cover in the country. The same report gives bamboo production figures for some of the more important bamboo producing states. For example, in 1993, Orissa produced 290000 tons and Madhya Pradesh 211000 tons. In 1994, Andhra Pradesh produced 174000 tons (and these figures account for only the production on state lands) (Brian, 1999).
The present study would explore the production and consumption with respect to Teak and Bamboo species.
What are the trend in supply and consumption of Teak and Bamboo species in India?
The study would explore the production and consumption trend of two important species teak and bamboo in India. Database prepared from the study would help forest managers and policymakers for improving trade scenario in the country.
Teak production data has been collected for the following states: Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Telangana and Gujarat. However this includes the production from department as well as tree outside forests, which would now require further segregation. Field visits were made to the following forest divisions: Balaghat North, Balaghat South, Hoshangabad and Sheopore. Market surveys were made in the Teak market of Bhopal, Hoshangabad and Itarsi as well as to the Bamboo market of Balaghat.